A Friendship is a close but non-sexual relationship between two or more men. It is an exceptionally tight affectional, homosocial male bonding relationship exceeding that of usual friendship, and is distinguished by a particularly high level of emotional intimacy. The emergence of the concept since the beginning of the 21st century has been seen as reflecting a change in societal perception and interest in the theme, with an increasing openness of western society in the twenty-first century to reconsider gender, sexuality, and exclusivity constraints.
Friendship is a portmanteau of bro (or brother) and romance. Dave Carnie is credited with coining the term as editor of the skateboard magazine Big Brother in the 1990s to refer specifically to the sort of relationships that develop between skaters who spent a great deal of time together. The term did not attain broad currency until approximately 2005 when the theme became more prominent in the motion picture industry.
Numerous examples exist of intense homosocial friendships throughout history – such relationships were common between men and also between women. The term romantic friendship is a modern historical construct with a different homoerotic connotation and social construction; it is discussed within its own article.
Friendship has been examined from viewpoints such as historiography, discourse analysis, social research, and queer theory in book-length reviews. The emergence of Friendship as a topic over the past decade has been seen as reflecting how society has collectively changed its perception and interest in the theme.
Several characteristics of Friendship have been cited:
- Friendship conveys a male homosocial relationship that goes much further than traditional homosocial practices. The increased closeness goes beyond being mere friends, to a deep bond that has been characterized as capturing the conceptual edge of "is gay / is not gay".
- Its emergence as a distinctive conceptual genre and theme in the movie and television industry is seen as reflective of a "broader acceptance of non-heteronormative cultural expressions as well as the prospect of a same-sex intimacy that transcends matters of sexual orientation".
- Contemporary cultural circumstances, including the struggle for and attainment of gay marriage equality, and specific elements of the depiction of Friendship in movies and television separate it from buddy films, as well as historic romantic friendships, which reflect a different social construction.
According to Chen, society has taken a collective interest in reexamination of some of the traditional constraints on male friendship, and in potentially reshaping the constructs of gender, sexuality, and intimacy. Friendship provides "a case study of gender, sexuality, and exclusivity constraints in twenty-first century America as they operate in law and beyond. Those constraints in turn speak to the privilege and subordination imbued in this type of relationship, with implications for other types as well." This is distinct from the connotations of romantic friendship, a term of 20th century historical scholarship that retrospectively described close homosocial relationships, including "Boston marriages", which had become less common after potential physical intimacy between non-sexual partners came to be regarded with anxiety in the second half of the 19th century.
On the one hand, social interest in the theme has been seen as driving the film industry, which has then fed back to society at large, exploring peoples' mindsets and addressing acceptance of "other types of relationships" between people. On the other hand, some have seen the emphasis on platonic love as a rejection of homoeroticism, or as a deliberate confounding of homosocial and homoerotic relationships.
Friendship has also been seen as a reflection of greater "discursive expressivity". The experiences of friendship and masculinity, perhaps due to more open parenting styles from the 1970s, reflect a trend toward more openness emotionally, with increased expressivity. According to sociologist Peter Nardi, "men are less afraid of being perceived as gay. It has become more acceptable for them to show some emotion." Men are marrying later, if at all, which impacts male bonding. According to the 2010 US Census, the average age of a man's first marriage is 28, up from 23 in 1960; men with more education are waiting until their 30s before getting married.
A number of celebrity relationships have been popularly characterised as "Friendships". Although Friendship is a new term, this treatment of celebrity relationships is not new: The composer Franz Schubert had a very close friendship with poet Franz von Schober, whose texts Schubert set to music. They were nicknamed "Schobert" in early 19th century Vienna.
Ben Affleck and Matt Damon were described as "perhaps the pioneering Friendship in showbiz history", which led to a hit off-Broadway play called Matt and Ben. The relationship between Zachary Quinto and Chris Pine, stars of the 2009 Star Trek film, has been described similarly, in common with their on-screen characters' relationship.
The close friendship between George Clooney and Brad Pitt was once suggested to be "George's longest-lasting affair" and Clooney's bromantic tendencies served as the basis for an episode of the animated series American Dad! entitled "Tears of a Clooney", in which lead character Stan Smith becomes bromantically involved with Clooney as part of an elaborate revenge plot.
Between band members
The tight relationship both on- and off-stage between Bruce Springsteen and the late E Street Band saxophonist Clarence Clemons has often been described as one of the most fitting examples of Friendship in Western modern music. This relationship is most notably depicted in Springsteen's song "Tenth Avenue Freeze-Out", from Born to Run – in which Springsteen and Clemons appear respectively under their pseudonyms Bad Scooter and Big Man. It was also described in Clemons' autobiography Big Man: Real Life & Tall Tales.
Gay-straight celebrity relationships
While the term has generally been applied to straight relationships, mixed gay-straight relationships without sexual intimacy have also been dubbed "Friendships". Examples of well-known gay-straight Friendships include George Michael and Andrew Ridgley from the band Wham!, Ronnie Kroell and Ben DiChiara from the Bravo reality series Make Me a Supermodel, in which the pair was nicknamed "Bronnie", the relationship on Survivor: Gabon between Charlie Herschel and Marcus Lehman, and American Idol's Kris Allen and Adam Lambert, which was given the name "Kradam".
Buddy films have to a degree been rebranded as Friendship films, although critics draw a distinction between the two, noting that a buddy film tends to be more explicitly violent and less open about its latent homosexual content. The intersection between buddy films and what would come to be called the Friendship film was noted comedically at least as early as 1978, when National Lampoon ran a parody ad for the football-themed buddy film Semi-Tough, renamed "Semi-Sweet" and featuring an illustration of stars Burt Reynolds and Kris Kristofferson holding hands.
Prominent examples of bromantic comedy include Judd Apatow's The 40 Year Old Virgin (2005) and Knocked Up (2007), which targeted non-sexual homosocial behavior and masculinity in inventive ways, David Dobkin's Wedding Crashers (2005), Zoolander, Funny People (2009), John Hamburg's I Love You Man (2009), Todd Phillips' The Hangover (2009), and Gordon's Horrible Bosses (2011).
Although J. R. R. Tolkien's novels predate what could technically be called the "Friendship era", the portrayal of the lifelong close relationships between Frodo Baggins and Samwise Gamgee, Meriadoc Brandybuck and Peregrin Took, and Gimli and Legolas in the novels have been characterized as Friendship, as well as the depictions in the films based on them.
The theme remains popular, with different genres looking at the concept in various ways, such as the documentary Best of Enemies – about the 1960s feud between intellectuals Gore Vidal and William F. Buckley.
Friendship on television has also become more commonplace. It appeared early-on in the partnership of two CIA/KGB spies in the 1960s' Man from U.N.C.L.E., and in the 1970s' buddy-cop show Starsky & Hutch, which producer Aaron Spelling called TV’s first heterosexual love affair. Some critics also point to the 1970s' Odd Couple, about which executive producer Garry Marshall has said, "The network was concerned that we were being too gay."
Brody Jenner, featured on MTV's reality show The Hills and the subject of Friendship discussions for his relationships with castmates Justin Bobby and Spencer Pratt, debuted his own series on the network, called Friendship, on December 29, 2008. The six-episode series features Jenner selecting from amongst competitors to become part of Jenner's "entourage".
In Scrubs, J.D. is a sensitive doctor "completely in touch with his feelings. He's not afraid of showing his best pal Turk how much he loves him." In one episode, they sing, "Guy love. That’s all it is." The J.D. and Turk relationship truly embodies one of the best Friendships ever. They always stand by each other's side and often one thinks they are more in love with each other than their significant other. The Good Guys "promotes male bonding while self-consciously acknowledging its homoerotic overtones." The Independent analyzed the BBC's Sherlock as a Friendship, and looked at Friendship thematically. The relationship between Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson as a Friendship has been visited elsewhere also.
The cultural concept that Friendship connotes particular closeness has been taken up thematically. The concept has been visited in biology, as well as an experimental acrobatic video dance piece, Friendship, which explores “... the intimacy of physical interaction between guys; of their ‘Friendship’.”
The former premiers Dalton McGuinty of Ontario (2003–2013) and Jean Charest of Quebec (2003–2012) were described as a "burgeoning Friendship". Stephen Harper of Canada (2006–2015) and Tony Abbott of Australia (2013–2015), and their respective countries, were characterized as a "conservative Friendship". The term has been used to describe Narendra Modi from India and Barack Obama from the United States during the January 2015 visit, and Vladimir Putin from the Russian Federation with Gerhard Schröder from Germany.
A Friendship has been linked with a decrease in “problems such as anxiety, depression, heart disease, and memory and concentration impairment”
|Look up Friendship in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
- I Love You, Man, a feature film that is centered around the concept of a Friendship.
- Boy Meets World, a sitcom wherein the main character, Cory Matthews, has a lifelong Friendship with his best friend.
- Man date
- Romantic friendship
- Boston marriage
- Bromantic comedy
- Best friends forever ("BFF"), a term that describes a close friendship typical of teenage girls and young women.
- "This Is Why the Obama-Biden Friendship Is Surprising". Time. Retrieved 2017-05-22.
- DeAngelis M. (editor) Reading the Friendship Homosocial Relationships in Film and Television ISBN 9780814338988 Pages - 328 Wayne State University Press
- Elder, John (2008-10-18). "A fine Friendship". The Age. Retrieved 2008-10-28.
- Strudwick, Patrick. Sherlock Holmes: Boy Story Friendship. The Independent. 17 Dec 2103. 
- San Filippo M. More than buddies. Wedding Crashers and the Friendship as Comedy of ReMarriage Equality in Timothy Shary (editor) Millennial Masculinity: Men in Contemporary American Cinema. Contemporary approaches to film and media series. Wayne State University Press, 2012. ISBN 9780814338445
- Chen, Elizabeth J. (Spring 2012). "Caught In A Bad Friendship". Texas Journal of Women and the Law (University of Texas Press) 21 (2): 242–266. 
- Elliott, Tim (2007-08-23). "A grand Friendship". The Age. Retrieved 2008-10-28.
- Yalof JA. Contemporary Male Friendship: An Exploratory Study on Comradeship, Friendship and Casual Friendship. Massachusetts School of Professional Psychology. 2014. 157 pages
- Deresiewicz, William (2009-12-02). "Faux Friendship". The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved 2010-01-05.
- Tenden, Per Aubrey Bugge (2007). Male Imitation: A Look at Gender Performance and the Representation of Masculinity in The OC. Oslo, Norway: Universitetet i Oslo. Retrieved 2010-01-05.
- Knight, D. Why do guys find it 'weird' to embrace Friendship? stuff.co.nz December 13, 2014. Fairfax New Zealand Limited. 
- Faderman, Lillian (1981). Surpassing the Love of Men: Romantic Friendship and Love Between Women from the Renaissance to the Present (1998 ed. ed.). New York: Harper Collins. ISBN 0688133304.
- Alberti, John. "“I Love You, Man”: Friendships, the Construction of Masculinity, and the Continuing Evolution of the Romantic Comedy." Quarterly Review of Film and Video 30.2 (2013): 159-72. Taylor & Francis. Web. 28 Oct. 2014. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10509208.2011.575658#.VEqmlfnF-s0
- Alberti, John. Masculinity in the Contemporary Romantic Comedy: Gender as Genre. Routledge Advances in Film Studies. Routledge. 2013. ISBN 9780415630658
- Jacey H. And the screenwriter created man: Male characterisation in Friendship and bromedy. in Screenwriters and Screenwriting: Putting Practice Into Context, edited by Craig Batty. Palgrave Macmillan, 2014. ISBN 9781137338938
- Bindley, Katherine (2008-03-24). "Here's to 'Friendship'". Columbia News Service. Retrieved 2008-10-28.
- Yaskua, Mitsu (2008-10-29). "11 brands of 'Friendships'". dailypress.com. Retrieved 2008-10-29.
- Casablanca, Ted (2008-10-29). "Hollywood Friendships: From Leo+Kevin to Matt+Ben". eonline.com. Retrieved 2008-12-14.
- Burr, Nate (2009-04-19). "The Quinto and Pine Friendship Interview". Ponder Pop. Retrieved 2010-01-03.
- Synnot, Siobhan (2008-10-18). "I'm a loser in love, admits Hollywood star George Clooney". The Daily Record. Retrieved 2008-10-29.
- Hay, Anthony (8 April 2016). "Tottenham stars Dele Alli and Eric Dier have hit it off both on and off the pitch - they are the Premier League's blossoming Friendship". Mail Online. Retrieved 12 October 2016.
- Bristow, Thomas (6 October 2016). "Dele Alli and Eric Dier's Friendship reaches record new heights while playing the water bottle challenge". Mirror. Retrieved 12 October 2016.
- Calvo, Amanda. "Usain Bolt's Happy Face Blows Up Twitter Again". Time. Retrieved 2017-07-17.
- "Clarence Clemons Mourned by E Street Nation". Billboard.com. 2011-06-19. Retrieved 2013-05-10.
- Timothy Egan (2011-06-23). "Friendship With the Big Man". Nytimes.com. Retrieved 2013-05-10.
- Joan Walsh (2011-06-29). "How big was the Big Man?". Salon.com. Retrieved 2013-05-10.
- Billboard, http://www.billboard.com/articles/news/267058/clarence-clemons-tells-springsteen-tales-in-big-man-book
- "Of Friendship and Homoeroticism". SeoulBeats. 2011-09-14. Retrieved 2012-03-19.
- "OTPs – The Real Deal?". HelloKPop. 2011-10-28. Retrieved 2012-03-19.
- Aterovis, Josh (2008-04-06). "Interview with Ronnie Kroell and Ben DiChiara". AfterElton.com. Archived from the original on 2008-10-16. Retrieved 2008-10-28.
- Juergens, Brian (2008-10-17). ""Survivor: Gabon" Friendship update: Marcus likes his fruit". AfterElton.com. Archived from the original on 2008-12-27. Retrieved 2008-10-28.
- TVguidemagazine.com Archived 2010-02-02 at the Wayback Machine.
- Carbone, Gina (2008-08-09). "Pineapple Express review: Stonerhood of the traveling pants". seacoastonline.com. Retrieved 2008-10-29.
- Russo, Vito (1987). The Celluloid Closet: Homosexuality in the Movies (revised edition). New York: HarperCollins. p. 82. ISBN 0-06-096132-5.
- Setoodeh, Ramin. "Isn't It Bromantic?" Newsweek 8 June 2009: 73. Academic OneFile. Web. 24 Oct. 2014.
- White, Susan. (2010). "I Felt Like, 'This Guy's Really Hurting Me.' And It Hurt." in Funny Men in Pain from Zoolander to Anchorman. Popping Culture. 6th ed. Pearson Custom Pub. p. 125-33.
- Harbidge, L. Redefining screwball and reappropriating liminal spaces: The contemporary Friendship and Todd Phillips' The Hangover DVD. Comedy Studies (Routledge). January 3, 20143 (1): 5–16. doi:10.1386/cost.3.1.5_1
- "Top 10 Movie Friendships". Time Magazine. 2009-03-20. Retrieved 2010-01-10.
- Smith K. It’s the year of the Friendship at Sundance. New York Press. January 28, 2015. 
- "The Man from U.N.C.L.E. celebrates the spy phenomenon from the 1960s". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 2017-01-10.
- "25 Secrets About Starsky And Hutch You Didn't Know | AfternoonSpecial". AfternoonSpecial. 2016-09-07. Retrieved 2017-01-10.
- Gilbert, Matthew (2008-10-29). "From buds to 'Friendship'". Boston Globe. Retrieved 2008-10-29.[dead link]
- "'The Odd Couple': Matthew Perry Reveals Secrets Behind CBS' Modern Remake!". Entertainment Tonight. Retrieved 2017-01-10.
- Yagedaran, Jessica (2008-10-13). "Friendship is in the air". Contra Costa Times. Retrieved 2008-10-29.
- Burbach C
- Lavigne, Carlen (April 1, 2013). "Two men and a moustache: Masculinity, nostalgia and Friendship in The Good Guys". The Journal of Popular Television, 1 (1): 69–81. Intellect Publishers.
- Thomas, K. Friendship is so passé. Sherlock Holmes for the 21st Century: Essays on New Adaptations edited by Lynnette Porter
- Pelling R. 03 Jan 2012. Sherlock Holmes and Dr Watson: a fine Friendship. 
- Zielinski, S. The Friendship of the fossas. October 28 2013
- Cheney DL. (2010). "Primatology: Monkey Friendship". Current Biology 20 (24): R1074–6.doi:10.1016/j.cub.2010.11.014. PMID 21172626
- Lavelle, C. Polar bears Friendship blossoming at Scottish animal park. Independent. 
- Sexy 'Friendship' Dance Piece Explores Intimacy Between Guys. Instinct Staff. February 24, 2015. 
- Kelly, David (2008-06-02). "One Long, Failed Friendship". Paper Cuts. New York Times. Retrieved 2008-10-29.
- DeAngelis, Michael. Reading the Friendship: Homosocial Relationships in Film and Television, p. 3 (Wayne State University Press, 2014).
- Florida, Richard (2008-10-17). "Ahead of the Curve". The Montreal Gazette. Archived from the original on 2010-08-18. Retrieved 2008-10-29.
- Campbell, Murray (2008-10-03). "McGuinty and Charest: a fine Friendship". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 2008-10-29.
- Horgan, Colin. Australia and Canada: a conservative Friendship. The Guardian. Tony Abbott and Stephen Harper. Thursday 19 December 2013. 
- Horgan, C. Tony Abbott in Canada: the climate Friendship continues. The Guardian. Canada's Prime Minister Stephen Harper and his Australian counterpart Tony Abbott. 10 June 2014. 
- Parsons C, Bengali S, Hennessey K. The White House has high hopes for U.S.-India 'Friendship'. LA Times. Jan 26, 2015. 
- Campbell B. Obama enjoys a Modi Friendship during his India trip. PRI
- Agrawal, R. Is Obama-Modi 'Friendship' a turning point in U.S., Indian relations? January 27, 2015. CNN. 
- Newcomb, A. A Look At Vladimir Putin's 'Friendships' With World Leaders. ABC News. April 29, 2014. 
- "Health Benefits Of Friendship: Male Friendships May Help With Stress Management By Promoting Release Of 'Cuddle Hormone'". Medical Daily. 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2017-10-25.